• Trenton Call: (734) 675.1170 | Fax: (734) 675.0688
  • Wyandotte Call: (734) 282.4100 | Fax: (734) 282.5420
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Established 1955

Welcome to our health education library. The information shared below is provided to you as an educational and informational source only and is not intended to replace a medical examination or consultation, or medical advice given to you by a physician or medical professional.


The crown is the visible portion of the tooth. It determines the function of the tooth, whether it is for cutting or chewing food.

Enamel is the white covering of the tooth. Largely made up of a mineral hydroxylapatite and calcium phosphate, it is the hardest part of the tooth and has about the same chemical composition as human bone. While enamel is strong enough to withstand the stress of biting, chewing and grinding, it is also brittle and prone to cracking and chipping.

Dentin is the yellowish substance that makes up most of the tooth. Although it is almost the same in chemical composition as the enamel, it is less dense and as a result is more prone to decay.

Cementum is similar in composition to enamel and dentin but is softer. Like enamel and dentin, it is basically hydroxylapatite and collagen, a yellowish substance covering the root of a tooth. Cementum helps anchor the tooth to the jawbone.

The pulp, or root, is made up of blood vessels and nerves. It plays a key role in forming the dentin through cells at its outer surface called odontoblasts. The root of the tooth extends into the jawbone and provides circulation and sensation to the tooth.

The gumline is where the tooth and gum meet. Without proper brushing and flossing, plaque and tartar can build up at the gumline, leading to gingivitis and gum disease.

Patient Reviews

Of the people whose smiles I admire, I have asked 1 common question. "Who was your Orthodontist!" Overwhelmingly the answer has been Dr Lupini. That is inarguably the Greatest testimony for his work and the results that you also will receive!

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Get in Touch

Mon-Fri offers alternating 7:30-4:30, or 12-6pm appointments.
Please call our office to verify daily hours. We can be a little flexible to meet your needs.


Established 1955

John Lupini, DDS, MS, is the director of True Orthodontics, which specializes in early orthodontic treatment, teeth straightening, Invisalign alternatives, and treats children and adults. True Orthodontics serves all of the downriver communities including but not limited to Southeastern Michigan, Wayne County, Monroe County, Macomb County, Oakland County, Downriver, Trenton, Grosse Ile, Woodhaven, Trenton, Riverview, Wyandotte, Melvindale, Ecorse, River Rouge, Detroit, Taylor, Westland, Garden City, Lincoln Park, Allen Park, Dearborn, Dearborn Heights, Romulus, Belleville, Huron Township, Van Buren Township, Flat Rock, Rockwood, Gibraltar, Brownstown, Monroe, Frenchtown, Newport, Carleton, Southgate and surrounding communities.